The complexity and the cost of connecting all those devices together must be kept to a minimum. The system must be designed in such a way that slower devices can communicate with the system without slowing down faster ones. To satisfy these requirements a serial bus is needed.
A bus means specification for the connections, protocol, formats, addresses and procedures that define the rules on the bus. This is exactly what I2C bus specifications define.
All I2C master and slave devices are connected with only those two wires. Each device can be a transmitter, a receiver or both. Some devices are masters — they generate bus clock and initiate communication on the bus, other devices are slaves and respond to the commands on the bus. In order to communicate with specific device, each slave device must have an address which is unique on the bus. Transmitter This is the device that transmits data to the bus. Receiver This is the device that receives data from the bus.
Master This is the device that generates clock, starts communication, sends I2C commands and stops communication. Slave This is the device that listens to the bus and is addressed by the master. Multi-master I2C can have more than one master and each can send commands. Arbitration A process to determine which of the masters on the bus can use it when more masters need to use the bus.
Synchronization A process to synchronize clocks of two or more devices. They are connected via resistors to a positive power supply voltage. This means that when the bus is free, both lines are high. All devices on the bus must have open-collector or open-drain pins.
Activating the line means pulling it down wired AND. The number of the devices on a single bus is almost unlimited — the only requirement is that the bus capacitance does not exceed pF. Because logical 1 level depends on the supply voltage, there is no standard bus voltage. For each clock pulse one bit of data is transferred. For both conditions SCL has to be high.I2C is a serial communication protocol.
It is not only used with the single board but also used with the other external components which have connected with boards through the cables. I2C is basically a two-wire communication protocol. It uses only two wire for communication. In I2C, both buses are bidirectional, which means master able to send and receive the data from the slave. The clock bus is controlled by the master but in some situations slave is also able to suppress the clock signal, but we will discuss it later.
I2C is pure master and slave communication protocol, it can be the multi-master or multi-slave but we generally see a single master in I2C communication. All slave and master are connected with same data and clock bus, here important thing is to remember these buses are connected to each other using the WIRE-AND configuration which is done by to putting both pins is open drain.
The wire-AND configuration allows in I2C to connect multiple nodes to the bus without any short circuits from signal contention. The open drain allows the master and slave to drive the line low and release to high impedance state.
So In that situation, when master and slave release the bus, need a pull resistor to pull the line high.Fun and Easy I2C - How I2C Protocol Works
The value of the pull-up resistor is very important as per the perspective of the design of the I2C system because the incorrect value of the pull-up resistor can lead to signal loss. In I2C, communication is always started by the master. When we send or receive the bytes in i2c, we always get a NACK bit or ACK bit after each byte of the data is transferred during the communication.
In I2C, one bit is always transmitted on every clock. A byte which is transmitted in I2C could be an address of the device, the address of register or data which is written to or read from the slave. In I2C, SDA line is always stable during the high clock phase except for the start condition, stop condition and repeated start condition. The SDA line only changes their state during the low clock phase. A master asserts the start condition on the line to start the communication.
The STOP condition is asserted by the master to stop the communication. The STOP condition is always asserted by the master. The repeated start is asserted by the master before the stop condition When the bus is not in an idle state. A Repeated Start condition is asserted by the master when he does not want to lose their control from the bus.
The repeated start is beneficial for the master when it wants to start a new communication without the asserting the stop condition. Note: Repeated start is beneficial when more than one master connected with the I2c Bus. The arbitration is required in case of multi-master, where more than one master is tried to communicate with a slave simultaneously.
The SCL clock of the I2c bus would be already synchronized by the wired and logic. In the above case, everything will be good till the state of SDA line will same what is the masters driving on the bus.As an engineer, you will have to use I2C communication one day.
I2C is one of the most popular communication peripheral due to its fast speed and flexibility. Today, through this blog, you will learn all about I2C, its basics and how it works.
We will be covering its. Skip to content. Search for:. We will be covering its Interface Characteristics Communication protocol Advantages and disadvantages I2C examples and implementation Without further ado, let us jump right in to why do we use I2C? Why use I2C?
The I2C bus is currently still a common communication peripheral used by various circuits and is simple to implement. Any microcontroller can communicate with I2C devices even without a I2C bus. In addition, the I2C interface is also flexible which allows it to communicate with slow devices while also having a high-speed modes to transmit large data. Because of how flexible it is, I2C will always remain as one of the best communication peripheral to connect devices. Ref: Circuit Basics. Ref: CNBlogs.
Ref: Microchip. Ref: Arduino Project Hub. Please follow and like us:. Wordpress Social Share Plugin powered by Ultimatelysocial.What is I 2 C communication? And how I 2 C works? And where I 2 C bus is used? And much more questions will be answered. And finally, do a couple of LAB projects to put it all together and get it to work practically.
The Prototyping Board Setup. There is a couple of io pins dedicated to the UART serial communication module highlighted in the following figure. Which is a serial, synchronous, single-master, multi-slave, full-duplex interface bus typically used for serial communication between microcomputer systems and other devices, memories, and sensors. The SPI was originally developed by Motorola back in the 80s to provide full-duplex serial communication to be used in embedded systems applications. Specifically for very short distance communications ob-board.
One of them should be the master and the other will essentially be a slave. The master initiates communication by generating a serial clock signal to shift a data frame out, at the same time serial data is being shifted-in to the master.
The I 2 C is a multi-master, multi-slave, synchronous, bidirectional, half-duplex serial communication bus. What are the essential elements of I 2 C transactions? And how does the physical layer of I 2 C look like?
And the modes, speeds of I 2 C, and much more. This is going to be the densest part of this tutorial and will be divided into many sub-sections for each topic. One at a time to successively build a very deep understanding of every little detail in the working mechanics of I 2 C communication.
Over time there have been several additions to the specification so that there are now five operating speed categories. Which means any device may be operated at lower bus speed. Ultra Fast-mode devices are not compatible with previous versions since the bus is unidirectional. Bidirectional bus:. Unidirectional bus:. Note: You have to refer to the specific device datasheet to check the typical details for the i2c hardware specifications that have actually been implemented on-chip.
Have a quick look at this short demo figure. When an open drain driver gets activated, the line will go down LOW. A typical I2C message has a format like the shown above in the figure. Starting with a start condition, ending by a stop condition.
This format will be discussed in more detail hereafter. But the thing to note is as follows. This will cause no problem, and here is why I2C bus is immune to such conditions. Both messages are identical in the first part address as they are actually sending to the same slave with the same address. But the data byte will be definitely different. At a moment, one of them will put 1 to the bus and the other will put 0.
This will not cause a short! So, the MCU1 master chip will lose arbitration and will have to wait until MCU2 finished the communication so it can start once again! And will be discussed in detail hereafter in the article.
Both SDA and SCL are bidirectional lines, connected to a positive supply voltage via a current-source or pull-up resistor.It is widely used for attaching lower-speed peripheral ICs to processors and microcontrollers in short-distance, intra-board communication. One purpose of SMBus is to promote robustness and interoperability.
Many other bus technologies used in similar applications, such as Serial Peripheral Interface Bus SPIrequire more pins and signals to connect multiple devices. These speeds are more widely used on embedded systems than on PCs.
Note the bit rates are quoted for the transfers between master and slave without clock stretching or other hardware overhead. Thus the actual transfer rate of user data is lower than those peak bit rates alone would imply.
For example, if each interaction with a slave inefficiently allows only 1 byte of data to be transferred, the data rate will be less than half the peak bit rate. The relatively high impedance and low noise immunity requires a common ground potential, which again restricts practical use to communication within the same PC board or small system of boards. The bus has two roles for nodes: master and slave:. The bus is a multi-master buswhich means that any number of master nodes can be present.
Additionally, master and slave roles may be changed between messages after a STOP is sent. There may be four potential modes of operation for a given bus device, although most devices only use a single role and its two modes:. This is in contrast to the start bits and stop bits used in asynchronous serial communicationwhich are distinguished from data bits only by their timing.
The master is initially in master transmit mode by sending a START followed by the 7-bit address of the slave it wishes to communicate with, which is finally followed by a single bit representing whether it wishes to write 0 to or read 1 from the slave. If the slave exists on the bus then it will respond with an ACK bit active low for acknowledged for that address. The address and the data bytes are sent most significant bit first. If the master wishes to write to the slave, then it repeatedly sends a byte with the slave sending an ACK bit.
In this situation, the master is in master transmit mode, and the slave is in slave receive mode. If the master wishes to read from the slave, then it repeatedly receives a byte from the slave, the master sending an ACK bit after every byte except the last one. In this situation, the master is in master receive mode, and the slave is in slave transmit mode. The master terminates a message with a STOP condition if this is the end of the transaction or it may send another START condition to retain control of the bus for another message a "combined format" transaction.
Any given slave will only respond to certain messages, as specified in its product documentation. SMBus is restricted to nine of those structures, such as read word N and write word Ninvolving a single slave.
The terminating STOP indicates when those grouped actions should take effect. Message semantics are otherwise product-specific. In practice, most slaves adopt request-response control models, where one or more bytes following a write command are treated as a command or address.
Those bytes determine how subsequent written bytes are treated or how the slave responds on subsequent reads. Most SMBus operations involve single-byte commands.
Writing and reading data to these EEPROMs uses a simple protocol: the address is written, and then data is transferred until the end of the message. The data transfer part of the protocol can cause trouble on the SMBus, since the data bytes are not preceded by a count, and more than 32 bytes can be transferred at once.
When writing multiple bytes, all the bytes must be in the same byte page. A logic "0" is output by pulling the line to ground, and a logic "1" is output by letting the line float output high impedance so that the pull-up resistor pulls it high.
A line is never actively driven high. This wiring allows multiple nodes to connect to the bus without short circuits from signal contention. High-speed systems and some others may use a current source instead of a resistor to pull-up only SCL or both SCL and SDA, to accommodate higher bus capacitance and enable faster rise times.
An important consequence of this is that multiple nodes may be driving the lines simultaneously. If any node is driving the line low, it will be low.
I2C Protocol,bus and Interface: A Brief Introduction
Nodes that are trying to transmit a logical one i. When used on SCL, this is called clock stretching and is a flow-control mechanism for slaves. When used on SDA, this is called arbitration and ensures that there is only one transmitter at a time.Arbitration, like clock synchronization, is required only if more than one master is used in the system.
A master may start transmission only if the bus is free. Arbitration is then required to determine which master will complete its transmission. Arbitration proceeds bit by bit. The arbitration process may take many bits. More than one masters can even complete an entire transaction without error if their transmissions are identical. A master that loses the arbitration can generate clock pulses until the end of the byte in which it loses the arbitration and can restart its transaction when the bus is free.
If a master can act as a slave and it loses arbitration during the addressing stage, it must switch immediately to its slave mode because the winning master may try to address it. The following figure shows the arbitration procedure for the DLN adapter and the Master2 device.
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Bus arbitration is not part of several of the protocols you mention. RS, RS and SPI can have bus arbitration but it is not part of the protocol, rather must be implemented on a different communications layer. I understand the I2C arbitration procedure but I want to understand that on which communication layer is I2C bus arbitration done?
Can someone brief on the communication layer regarding the bus arbitration for I2C protocol and other protocols which have bus arbitration.
I2C arbitration works at the datalink level. So during I2C slave address where two masters are transmitting, if one master pulls SDA low while the other master wants SDA high, then the open-drain datalink resolves the conflict in favor of the low value.
Whichever master is transmitting the higher-numbered slave address, lost the I2C arbitration and must immediately release the bus. This only works if both I2C masters detect during each bit transfer that SDA is in the requested state. Not all I2C implementations are compatible with multi-master systems.
A software bit-banging I2C master might not support multi-master address arbitration. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. I2C bus arbitration - communication layer Ask Question. Asked 4 months ago.